sm
 
Lauren Lott Staff Photo
Assignments(Archived)
APES U3 - C7 POPULATION MATH PRACTICE
Due Date: 2/25/2015
Subject: AP Environmental Science

Name ___________________

Block _____     Date ________

 

U3 - C7  Population Math Worksheet #1

 

1. One thousand two hundred and seventy deer are living on an island that is eight hundred and thirty square kilometers in size. What is the population density of the deer per square kilometer?

 

 

 

2. A city with 53,340 people has 876 births. What is the birth rate (as a percentage and per thousand)?

 

 

 

3. Another city experiences 12 deaths for each thousand people. What is the death rate (as a percentage and per thousand)?

 

 

 

4. A village of 23,473 people has 2,342 births and 473 deaths. What is the growth rate for this village?

 

 

 

5. A small country of 744,785 people has 44,678 immigrants and 12,567 emigrants. They also experience 15,898 deaths and 35,665 births. What is the growth rate of this small country?

 

 

 

 

6. How many years will it take for this country to double its population?

 

 

 

7. If a country were doubling its population every 35 years, what would its growth rate be?

 

 

 

8. By accident (or maybe on purpose), the Rogliani Family released a pair of purple-necked parrots in San Diego.   That spring, the parrots laid 4 eggs, three of which hatched and two reached reproductive age.   Assume that the purple-necked parrots are reproductively mature after 24 months and that they live to be ten years old. How many of these parrots would be living in San Diego after 10 years, assuming none of them are killed by cats or kids with B.B. guns and that there was immigration and no more releases.

 

 



APES U3:C7 STUDENT REVIEW NOTES & VOCABULARY
Due Date: 2/25/2015
Subject: AP Environmental Science

U3:C7 Student Study-Review Notes: Population Vocabulary

 

 

 

demography, demographer

 

 

population size

 

population density

 

 

population dispersion

 

                 clumping

 

 

 

 

                 uniform

 

 

 

                   random

 

 

 

 

 

4 variables of pop growth

 

pop growth formula

 

 

 

logistic curve

 

 

 

exponential curve

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the study of populations, person who studies populations.

 

 

 

number of individuals in a population at a given time

 

 

 

 

spatial pattern in which the members of a population are found in their habitat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

number of births, deaths, immigration (entering) & emigration (leaving)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

limiting factors

 

 

 

 

 

density-dependent population controls

 

 

 

density-independent population controls

 

 

 

carrying capacity (k)

 

 

overshoot

 

 

              

population momentum or population-lag effect

 

 

 

birth rate (fecundity)

 

 

death rate (mortality)

 

 

% annual rate of natural pop change (g)

 

 

 

 

doubling Time (T)

(how many years for popul to double?)

 

 

biotic potential (reproductive potential)

 

 

life expectancy

 

 

 

the factors that limit the growth of a population. Not to be confused with Range of Tolerance which is the zone in which a population can survive.   A limiting factor is what prevents the population from surviving there.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

population temporarily exceeds the carrying capacity of its habitat;

occurs because of a reproductive time lag.

 

 

The time it takes for the population size to level off AFTER the growth rate has reached the replacement-level fertility rate. In other words, when the growth rate finally drops to 2.1, just enough to replace itself, the population will continue to increase for a while because of the portion of the population who are still in their child-bearing years. The final population size will be much larger than when 2.1 was achieved.   May take 50 to 200 years.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the maximum rate at which a population could grow if it had unlimited resources; depends on having a certain minimum population size (critical size)

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

ZPG

 

 

TFR

 

RFR

 

 

 

 

age-structure histogram

 

 

cohort

 

 

 

 

life expectancy

 

life history

 

survivorship curve

 

                 Type I

 

                 Type II

 

                 Type III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r -strategist

 

 

 

 

 

k-strategist

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a stacked bar graph comparing

population sizes of different cohorts       _______________     ______________

                                                                   rapidly growing         stable size

 

 

 

 

 

length of time an individual of a certain age in a given species can expect to survive

 

an organism’s schedule of birth, reproduction ,death

 

shows the number of survivors of each age group for a particular species

 

high rate of survival of young, most die old e.g. _________________________

 

constant rates of survival, die whenever. e.g. ______________________________

 

high rates of mortality of young; a few reach adulthood.

                 e.g. ___________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

species that reproduce at young age, in short generations, having many offspring and providing little parental care, when conditions are favorable.

e.g.   ______________________________________________________________

ADVANTAGES:

DISADVANTAGES:

 

species that reproduce by having few or one offspring, one by one, and providing some to much parental care

e.g.   _________________________________________________________

ADVANTAGES:

DISADVANTAGES:

 



APES U3:C7 FLASH CARD/STUDENT SELF-STUDY NOTES
Due Date: 2/25/2015
Subject: AP Environmental Science

 APES   U3:C7 FLASH CARD/STUDENT SELF STUDY NOTES

 

 

(# births + # immigrants – #deaths – # emigrants) / 100 = population growth rate

1

 

 

 

 

 

70 ÷ r

 

r = % annual growth rate

2

 

 

Highest birth rates in world are in sub-Saharan Africa, about 3% / year and in Middle East.

 

Lowest birth rates in world are in Europe

3

 

Zero population growth b/c # births = # deaths.

 

Or # births & immigrants = # deaths & emigrants

 

4

 

 

In 1798,

he predicted eventual mass starvation, poverty & disease if humans did not control population size.

 

5

 

 

He wrote the Population Bomb, a book that predicts massive famines if humans do not control population size.

6

 

 

 

Looks more pyramidal; wider at base, narrower near top

 

7

 

 

 

 

Looks more columnar

 

8

 

 

r = 1.4%

size = 6.5 billion (2006)

doubling time = 50 years

 

9

 

Total fertility rate = total # of babies that a woman will have during her lifetime.

 

TFR = 2.1 is replacement level

10

 

 

The maximum population of a species that can survive in a given habitat over a period of time

 

11

 

The maximum number of offspring that can be produced when food and space are unlimited.

 

12

1. population growth rate formula   2. Time for population to double   3. Where on Earth are highest birth rates & lowest birth rates?   4. ZPG   5. Thomas Malthus said…     6. Paul Ehrlich said…     7. Age Structure graph for Kenya, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia. 8. Age Structure graph for Italy, Ireland and Japan. 9. Annual population growth for world, size of human population, doubling time   10. TFR   11. carrying capacity   12. biotic potential

 

A temporary condition when the size of the population exceeds the carrying capacity.

 

13

 

 

r-strategy = many, small & unprotected young are produced by mother.   High population growth rate; early successional. e.g.   rats, insects, fish

k-strategy = few/one, large young provided w/ parental care. e.g. elephants, humans, kangaroos       14

 

 

Graph that shows size of population in each cohort.

 

 

15

 

 

Population growth increases geometrically. It doubles and doubles and doubles.

 

16

 

 

 

 

world TFR = 3.0;

developed countries = 1.6; developing countries = 3.4

 

 

17

 

Increase # years of education for women, provide free or reduced-cost birth control, reduce infant mortality w/ vaccinations & health care,

 

18

 

The population increases to carrying capacity, then wavers around C.C.

Population size is controlled by density factors

 

19

 

 

 

 

demography

 

20

 

 

 

 

China w/ 1.2 billion

India w/ 920 million

USA w/ 290 million

Indonesia

Brazil

 

21

 

clumping e.g.   flocks, herds, schools

uniform e.g.   creosote bush, penguin nests, barnacles

random e.g.   dandelions

 

22

 

 

The size of population is controlled by factors that are DEPENDENT on the size of population.

e.g. food, space, transmission of diseases

 

23

 

The size of population is controlled by environmental factors

e.g. drought, fire, floods

 

24

 

13.   overshoot   14. r-strategy & k-strategy   15. Age structure graph   16. Exponential popul graph   17. TFR for world, developing and developed nations.   18. Ways to reduce TFR   19. logistic popul graph   20. The study of populations 21. 5 most populous countries on Earth   22. population dispersion patterns   23 density dependent factors   24 density independent factors


 

 

Per person

 

e.g. the average annual income was $4589 per capita

 

25

 

The hypothesis that the population of a country will go from high birth rate-high death rate (ZPG) to high birth rate-lowered death rate (high popul growth) to lowered birth rate-lowered death rate (ZPG)

26

There is a period of time (50 to 200 years) after a country has passed through the demographic transition when the popul is still increasing. Caused by large size of child-bearing cohort.           27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25. Per capita   26. Demographic Transition   27. Population momentum   28.



APES U3:C7 STUDENT NOTES - POPULATION MATH
Due Date: 2/25/2015
Subject: AP Environmental Science

Name ______________________________

Block _________

 

U3:C7 Student Notes: Population Math

 

Statistics provided from www.census.gov

 

 

1. Population   Density

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Birth Rate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Death Rate

 

 

 

 

 

population   =     pop density

     area

 

 

Ex 1 - What is the density of people in USA? (all 50 states)

pop in 2000 = 281,421,906           area = 3,537,438 sq miles

 

 

 

Ex 2 - What is the population density of Tennessee?

pop in 2000 = 5,689,283            area =   41,217 sq miles

 

        

 

 

births in one year   X   100 =   birth rate % per year        

total population

 

(Then - change answer to births per 1000)

 

Ex 1 - What is the birth rate for Siberian tigers if 18 Siberian tigers were born in captivity last year and the total world population is 450?

 

                

 

 

Ex 2 - What is the population birth rate in Tennessee?

           births = 79,642            total TN pop = 5,689,283

 

          

 

 

deaths in one year   X   100 =   death rate % per year        

total population

 

Ex 1 - What is the death rate in Tennessee?

           deaths = 55,829         total pop = 5,689,283

 

 

                                                        

 

 

4. Population Growth Rate (g)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Doubling Time

 

(how long for the population to increase by 100%?)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional Population Math Information

 

1. How do you calculate future population sizes?

 

 

births - deaths + immigration - emigration   X   100 = growth rate

                 total population                                                        

    

 

Ex 1 - What’s the growth rate for California between 1 July 2001 & 1 July 2002?

births = 528,151

emigration out =   231,440

deaths = 232,790

immigration in =307,640

total population =   34,655,000

 

 

 

 

 

   70____  =   doubling time

g as a %

 

Ex 1 - How many years for California to double its population with a current

         growth rate of 1.07% ?

 

        

 

Ex 2 – What is the Pop Growth rate for Libya if the population doubles every

           18.9 years?

 

        

 

Ex 3 – TN had a growth rate of 6.1% from April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 with a total population of 6,038,803 in 2006. How many years will it take for TN to double its population?

 

      

 

 

 

Formula   pop in a   future year = pop ● (1 + r) x    

r = growth rate in decimal form

x = number of years in the future

(assumption - the growth rate will remain constant)

 

Ex 1 - What will the population of Tennessee be in July 2020 if starting

             population is 6,038,803 and the rate of growth is 6.1%?

 

 

 

 



APES U2 - C3 Notes
Due Date: 2/28/2014
Subject: AP Earth Science

U2- The Living World    C3 Study Guide    Name __________________________

 

Read the Case Study – Reversing the Deforestation of Haiti: Use the notes spaces for some reflection of the key concepts you read

 

What is an Ecosystem?

 

 

What factors are uses to determine Ecosystems?

 

 

 

How can Human Ecosystem boundaries differ from Natural boundaries?

 

 

Make sure you are familiar with the basics of Photosynthesis, Respiration, Trophic Levels, Food Chains & Webs. Write a one sentence definition of each in the notes side.

Review producer, consumer, etc, as needed.

 

 

Define the Following & give one example of each: GPP, NPP, Biomass, Standing Crop

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is the Biosphere?

 

 

What is the idea behind Biogeochemical Cycles? Explain in 2-3 sentences. List the names of the BGC Cycles.

NOTE – handouts on the BGC cycles will be provided

 

In Ecology, what is meant by the term ‘Disturbance’? Provide an example of a disturbance & give a 1-2 sentence explanation about it.

 

In 1-2 sentences, discuss the ideas of Resistance vs Resilience

 

 

State the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis & give an example of this in nature

 

Read about Instrumental vs Intrinsic Value of Ecosystems. Write a brief paragraph comparing & contrasting them, providing an example of each.

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

Photosynthesis –

 

Cellular Respiration –

 

Trophic Levels –

 

 

Food Chains –

 

Food Webs –

 

 

 

GPP –

 

 

NPP –

 

 

Biomass -

 

 

Standing Crop -

 

 

 

*

 

 

*

 

 

*

*

*

*

 

 

 

*

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

*

 

In Addition:

  • Review ‘Key Ideas Revisited’
  • Look up & review the BGC Cycles on your own at home
  • Complete any assigned C3 Text work as assigned by Teacher (MC, FRQs, etc)


APES U1: C2 ANSWERS- FRIEDLAND
Due Date: 2/7/2014
Subject: AP Earth Science

ANSWERS --CHAPTER 2 PREPARING FOR THE AP EXAM

 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. Which of the following statements about atoms and molecules is correct?

(a) The mass number of an element is always less than its atomic number.

(b) Isotopes are the result of varying numbers of neutrons in atoms of the same element.

(c) Ionic bonds involve electrons while covalent bonds involve protons.

(d) Inorganic compounds never contain the element carbon.

(e) Protons and electrons have roughly the same mass.

 

2. Which of the following does not demonstrate the law of conservation of matter?

(a) CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O

(b) NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O

(c) 2 NO2 + H2O → HNO3 + HNO2

(d) PbO + C → 2 Pb + CO2

(e) C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

 

3. Pure water has a pH of 7 because

(a) its surface tension equally attracts acids and bases.

(b) its polarity results in a molecule with a positive and a negative end.

(c) its ability to dissolve carbon dioxide adjusts its natural pH.

(d) its capillary action attracts it to the surfaces of solid substances.

(e) its H+ concentration is equal to its OH– concentration.

 

4. Which of the following is not a type of organic biological molecule?

(a) Lipids

(b) Carbohydrates

(c) Salts

(d) Nucleic acids

(e) Proteins

 

5. A wooden log that weighs 1.00 kg is placed in a fireplace. Once lit, it is allowed to burn until there are only traces of ash, weighing 0.04 kg, left. Which of the following best describes the flow of energy?

(a) The potential energy of the wooden log was converted into the kinetic energy of heat and light.

(b) The kinetic energy of the wooden log was converted into 0.04 kg of ash.

(c) The potential energy of the wooden log was converted into 1.00 J of heat.

(d) Since the ash weighs less than the wooden log, matter was converted directly into energy.

(e) The burning of the 1.00 kg wooden log produced 0.96 kg of gases and 0.04 kg of ash.

 

6. Consider a power plant that uses natural gas as a fuel to generate electricity. If there are 10,000 J of chemical energy contained in a specified amount of natural gas, then the amount of electricity that could be produced would be

(a) greater than 10,000 J because electricity has a higher energy quality than natural gas.

(b) something less than 10,000 J, depending on the efficiency of the generator.

(c) greater than 10,000 J when energy demands are highest; less than 10,000 J when energy demands are lowest.

(d) greater than 10,000 J because of the positive feedback loop of waste heat.

(e) equal to 10,000 J because energy cannot be created or destroyed.

 

7. A lake that has been affected by acid rain can have a pH of 4. How many more times acidic is the lake than seawater? (See Figure 2.8 on page 34.)

(a) 4

(b) 10

(c) 100

(d) 1,000

(e) 10,000

 

8. An automobile with an internal combustion engine converts the potential energy of gasoline (44 MJ/kg) into the kinetic energy of the moving pistons. If the average internal combustion engine is 10 percent efficient and 1 kg of gasoline is combusted, how much potential energy is converted into energy to run the pistons?

(a) 39.6 MJ

(b) 20.0 MJ

(c) 4.4 MJ

(d) Depends on the capacity of the gas tank

(e) Depends on the size of the engine

 

9. If the average adult woman consumes approximately 2,000 kcal per day, how long would she need to run in order to utilize 25 percent of her caloric intake, given that the energy requirement for running is 42,000 J per minute?

(a) 200 minutes

(b) 50 minutes (c) 5 minutes

(d) 0.05 minutes

(e) 0.012 minutes

 

10. The National Hurricane Center studies the origins and intensities of hurricanes over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and attempts to forecast their tracks, predict where they will make landfall, and assess what damage will result. Its systems analysis involves

(a) changes within a closed system.

(b) inputs and outputs within a closed system.

(c) outputs only within an open system.

(d) inputs from a closed system and outputs in an open system.

(e) inputs, outputs, and changes within an open system.

 

11. Based on the graph on page 50 of your text, which of the following is the best interpretation of the data?

(a) The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is in steady state.

(b) The output of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is greater than the input into the atmosphere.

(c) The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration appears to be decreasing.

(d) The input of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is greater than the output from the atmosphere.

(e) The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will level off due to the annual cycle.

 

12. The diagram on page 50 of your text represents which of the following concepts?

(a) A negative feedback loop, because melting of permafrost has a negative effect on the environment by increasing the amounts of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere.

(b) A closed system, because only the concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere contribute to the permafrost thaw.

(c) A positive feedback loop, because more carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere result in greater permafrost thaw, which releases more carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere.

(d) An open system that resists change and regulates global temperatures.

(e) Steady state, because inputs and outputs are equal.

 

13. Which of the following statements about the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan is not correct?

(a) Human and natural systems interact because feedback loops lead to adaptations and changes in both systems.

(b) Water conservation will alter land uses and restore populations of aquatic and marsh organisms.

(c) Improvements in waste treatment facilities and restrictions on agricultural chemicals will reduce the nutrients and toxins in the water that reaches the Everglades.

(d) Adaptive management will allow for the modification of strategies as changes occur in t his complex system.

(e) The Florida Everglades is a closed system that includes positive and negative feedback loops and is regulated as such.

 

14. Which of the following would represent a system in steady state?

I The birth rate of chameleons on the island of Madagascar equals their death rate.

II Evaporation from a lake is greater than precipitation and runoff flowing into the lake.

III The steady flow of the Colorado River results in more erosion than deposition of rock particles.

(a) I only

(b) II only

(c) III only

(d) I and II

(e) I and III 42

 

FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS

1. The atomic number of uranium-235 is 92, its half-life is 704 million years, and the radioactive decay of 1 kg of 235U releases 6.7 X 1013 J. Radioactive material must be stored in a safe container or buried deep underground until its radiation output drops to a safe level. Generally it is considered “safe” after 10 half-lives.

 

(a) Assume that a nuclear power plant can convert energy from 235U into electricity with an efficiency of 35 percent, the electrical transmission lines operate at 90 percent efficiency, and fluorescent lights operate at 22 percent efficiency,

(i) What is the overall efficiency of converting the energy of 235U into fluorescent light? (2 points)

0.35 x 0.90 x 0.22 = 0.069 or 6.9% efficiency

(nuclear decay to electricity) (transport of electricity) (fluorescent light efficiency)

(ii) How much energy from 1 kg of 235U is converted into fluorescent light? (2 points)

8.9 x 1013 joules/kg x 0.069 (1 kg U-235) = 6.2 X 1012 joules

(iii) Name one way in which you could improve the overall efficiency of this system. Explain how your suggestion would improve efficiency. (2 points)

Some ways that could improve the efficiency of this system would be to use the waste heat or decrease the heat and sound lost as the energy is being transported from the plant to the light.

(b) What are the first and second laws of thermodynamics? (2 points)

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. This explains how it is possible to take the energy from the fission of Uranium-235 and convert it to energy used in fluorescent lighting.

The second law of thermodynamics states that when energy is transformed, some of that energy is converted to a less usable form, usually heat, and the capacity of that energy to do work diminishes. This explains why no conversion from one energy form to another is 100% efficient and less usable energy is available for applications such as the fluorescent light.

(c) How long would it take for the radiation from a sample of 235U to reach a safe level? (2 points)

10 half-lives x 704 million years/half-life = 7,040 million years or 7.04 billion years

 

2. U.S. wheat farmers produce, on average, 3,000 kg of wheat per hectare. Farmers who plant wheat year after year on the same fields must add fertilizers to replace the nutrients removed by the harvested wheat. Consider a wheat farm as an open system.

(a) Identify two inputs and two outputs of this system. (4 points)

 

Possible inputs:

• Water

• Sunlight

• Seeds

• Fertilizers

• Pesticides

• Gasoline (to run machinery)

• Land (space)

• Soil

 

Possible outputs:

• Food

• Seeds

• Air pollution

• Water pollution

 

(b) Using one input to and one output from (a), diagram and explain one positive feedback loop. (2 points)

There are many possible answers; two examples are provided. OR

Pesticide use reduces the number of pests resulting in an increase in crop production, which provides more food for more pests that necessitates the use of more pesticides.

(c) Identify two adaptive management strategies that could be employed if a drought occurred. (2 points)

Possible Adaptive Management Strategies:

• Plant fewer crops

• Replant specific areas with prairie grasses for ground cover to prevent erosion

• Divert water from other areas not affected by the drought

• Import water (i.e., truck it in from distant areas)

• Use water that has been stored from previous nondrought years

• Switch to a crop that requires less water (xeriscaping)

• Leave land fallow

 

(d) Wheat contains about 2.5 kcal per gram, and the average U.S. male consumes 2,500 kcal per day. How many hectares of wheat are needed to support one average U.S. male for a year, assuming that 30 percent of his caloric intake is from wheat? (2 points)

kcal consumed by male from wheat =

2,500 kcal/d x (365d x 0.30) =2.74E5 kcal

kg wheat required per year =

[2.74E5 kcal/2.5 kcal/g] x (1 kg/1000g) = 110 kg per year

hectares needed =

(1 ha/3000 kg)(110 kg) = 0.037 ha.

MEASURING YOUR IMPACT

Bottled Water Versus Tap Water A 2007 study traced the energy input required to produce bottled water in the United States. In addition to the energy required to make plastic bottles from PET (polyethylene terephthalate), energy from 58 million barrels of oil was required to clean, fill, seal, and label the water bottles. This is 2,000 times more than the amount of energy required to produce tap water.

In 2007 the population of the United States was 300 million people and, on average, each of those people consumed approximately 114 L (30 gallons) of bottled water. The average 0.6 L (20-ounce) bottle of water cost $1.00. The average charge for municipal tap water was about $0.0004 per liter.

(a) Complete the following table for the year 2007. Show all calculations. Liters of bottled water consumed in 2007

Liters of bottled water produced per barrel of oil

3.42 x1010 L

590



GAIA Hypothesis
Due Date: 1/21/2014
Subject: AP Earth Science

Name ________________________     Block ________     Due ________________

UNIT ONE - GAIA HYPOTHESIS

In the 1970’s an idea about the interconnectedness of Earth was introduced by scientists James Lovelock & Lynn Margulis. This idea, while radical in many aspects, caught the attention of many who were living in a world where pollution & its effects were acting like dominoes, tumbling & toppling entire ecosystems that had stood for millennia.

Please do the following:

·     Go online & look at a minimum of three sources about the Gaia Hypothesis. Read about it & try to immerse yourself a bit in what these ideas were all about. One good site is the Gaia Theory Homepage; found atwww.gaiatheory.org Another site worth reading is Stephen Miller’s essay written on Gaia in 1989 as well as commentary on Gaia by James Lovelock, the co-author of the Gaia Hypothesis.

·     Complete the assignment listed below. It is my preference that you type it (as well as all assignments in APES), so if you have access to a computer, please type & print the assignment as opposed to hand writing it. If you do not have access to a computer/printer, you must use black ink only to complete the assignment.

·     Please write out the Questions & Answers (this will serve you later as you use this assignment to study)

·     Assignment:

1.      What are the three main points/premises of the Gaia Hypothesis? List each & give a 4-6 sentence synopsis of each point.

2.      List two ‘proofs’ that Lovelock uses to defend his idea of Gaia. What do you think about the ideas presented in the two you chose to write about?

3.      In your own words, what were/are some of the ongoing criticisms of the Gaia Hypothesis? Do you agree or disagree with these criticisms? Why or why not?

4.      Do you think the idea of Gaia has gained more or less acceptance in recent years? Why or why not?

5.      What do YOU think about the Gaia Hypothesis? List two ‘take-aways’ from this assignment (impact points, things you will remember, etc) & discuss each of them in 4-6 sentences each (or more if needed).

 



U3 - Generalist vs Specialist
Due Date: 3/6/2013
Subject: AP Earth Science

Is it better to be a Specialist or a Generalist Species?

Species can be broadly classified as specialists or generalists, according to their niches.  Generalist specieshave broad niches:  They can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions.  Flies, cockroaches, mice, rats, white-tailed deer, black bears, raccoons, coyotes, channel catfish, and humans are all generalist species.

Specialist species have narrow niches:  They may be able to live in only one type of habitat, tolerate only a narrow range of climatic and other environmental conditions, or use only one or a few types of food, which makes them more prone to becoming endangered when environmental conditions change.  Examples of specialists are tiger salamanders, which can breed only in fishless ponds so their larvae won’t be eaten; red-cockaded woodpeckers, which carve nest-holes almost exclusively in old (at least 75 years) longleaf pine trees; spotted owls, which require old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest for food and shelter; and the endangered giant panda (about 800 left in the wild in China), which gets 99% of its food from bamboo.

In a tropical rain forest, an incredibly diverse array of species survives by occupying specialized ecological niches in various distinct layers of vegetation exposed to different levels of light.  The widespread clearing and degradation of such forests is dooming millions of such specialized species to extinction.

Is it better then to be a generalist than a specialist?  It depends!

When environmental conditions are fairly constant, as in a tropical rain forest, specialists have an advantage because they have fewer competitors.  When environments are changing rapidly, however, the adaptable generalist is usually better off than the specialist.

Generalist vs. Species Assignment – Use Separate Paper, list both Q & A

1.  Name two generalist animals other than those used in this handout.  Explain what makes them generalists.

2.  What’s the advantage for a generalist animal?  What’s the disadvantage?

3.  Name two specialist animals other than those used in this handout.  Explain what makes them specialists.

4.  What’s the advantage for a specialist animal?   What’s its disadvantage?

5.  Which would you see more of at a State or Local Park - specialist or generalist animals?  Support your reasoning & use examples where needed.

6.  It has been predicted that Greene County’s population will increase quite a bit over the next twenty years.  This means there will be increased clearing of land & land use for a variety of purposes. Predict how this development will affect the specialists and generalists of Greene County. Support your reasoning & use examples where needed.

 



GAIA Hypothesis
Due Date: 1/22/2013
Subject: AP Earth Science

Name ________________________     Block ________     Due ________________

UNIT ONE - GAIA HYPOTHESIS

In the 1970’s an idea about the interconnectedness of Earth was introduced by scientists James Lovelock & Lynn Margulis. This idea, while radical in many aspects, caught the attention of many who were living in a world where pollution & its effects were acting like dominoes, tumbling & toppling entire ecosystems that had stood for millennia.

Please do the following:

·         Go online & look at a minimum of three sources about the Gaia Hypothesis. Read about it & try to immerse yourself a bit in what these ideas were all about. One good site is the Gaia Theory Homepage; found atwww.gaiatheory.org Another site worth reading is Stephen Miller’s essay written on Gaia in 1989 as well as commentary on Gaia by James Lovelock, the co-author of the Gaia Hypothesis.

·         Complete the assignment listed below. It is my preference that you type it (as well as all assignments in APES), so if you have access to a computer, please type & print the assignment as opposed to hand writing it. If you do not have access to a computer/printer, you must use black ink only to complete the assignment.

·         Please write out the Questions & Answers (this will serve you later as you use this assignment to study)

·         Assignment:

1.      What are the three main points/premises of the Gaia Hypothesis? List each & give a 4-6 sentence synopsis of each point.

2.      List two ‘proofs’ that lovelock uses to defend his idea of Gaia. What do you think about the ideas presented in the two you chose to write about?

3.      In your own words, what were/are some of the ongoing criticisms of the Gaia Hypothesis? Do you agree or disagree with these criticisms? Why or why not?

4.      Do you think the idea of Gaia has gained more or less acceptance in recent years? Why or why not?

5.      What do YOU think about the Gaia Hypothesis? List two ‘take-aways’ from this assignment (impact points, things you will remember, etc) & discuss each of them in 4-6 sentences each (or more if needed).